Too Little…And Too Late?…Sugar and Dairy
The first thing to do in the face of any health trouble
–in the realm of food—
eliminate white sugar and dairy….Annemarie Colbin, Ph.D.1
November and March are the windy, transition months. Winds bring change as they usher in new climates and new seasons. Have you ever noticed how often winds pick up following a rain storm to clear the skies and invite back dry, sunny conditions? Similarly, November winds transition us from fall to winter. At this season our vitality and health become easy prey to what traditional Chinese medicine termed “pernicious” winds. Winds may be pernicious when they steal a hat or a kite on a blustery day. But traditional Chinese healers meant something different. For the skilled Chinese doctor, with a keen focus on preventing illness and preserving health, piercing winds meant risk, for winds threaten to cut into and diminish the body’s true core essence/energy. Howling winds spoke the simple warning to rest and take care.
So, as we approach the late-fall and early-winter cold and flu season, let’s return to the sugar-dairy discussion of earlier this year–now by looking at dairy, both its health benefits as well as its potential role in acute and chronic disease. You may recall from our April09 and May09 newsletters that sugar is an “empty,” depleting calorie source, which can weaken the immune system and in other ways undermine vitality and health.
Dairy, with different dynamics, can also undermine health: It is a growth/build-up food that can create mucus. Mucus is associated with growth and is a medium through which the body expels excess and “debris.” Mucus is also a nurturing environment for the growth of bacteria.2 So is milk. Milk is a favorite food of bacteria. Scientists use dairy in the lab to grow bacteria. And, companies that sell probiotics use it as a medium to assure the safe keeping and long shelf life of their bacteria/intestinal flora products.
I confess that I love dairy, especially yogurt…for its taste, convenience, digestibility, and the way the milk sugar gives me a quick pick-up when I am on the run. Nothing could be easier! In my younger years when I was pregnant and growing babies, yogurt made me feel great.
Three years ago, at the beginning of a summer, I fell down a flight of basement stairs. With my arm in a sling making cooking difficult and with my family away, I returned to yogurt once again. Thinking it would be good for me to rebuild the bones of my broken shoulder, I ate a quart or more a day. Then, the following autumn, when I returned to a more balanced diet, telltale signs of excess3 appeared. It was my body talking to me, conveying the message through a healing reaction4 that dairy was simply too much for me at that mature stage of my life. Now, I use it more sparingly.
Dairy and Osteoporosis5
When we think of dairy we often think of osteoporosis since calcium, milk, and osteoporosis are inextricably linked in our modern thinking. We are made to fear that if we do not drink enough milk, our bones and teeth will fall apart. If you “Google” the details behind the official Food Pyramid, you will find that the government (influenced by the dairy industry) recommends that adults drink three glasses of milk a day. If my math is correct, this translates into 67 gallons of milk annually, which is twice the 34 gallons consumed by our forebears on the farm a century ago.6
Does this recommendation make sense? Osteoporosis was not known 100 years ago to our farming ancestors. Neither was it historically a condition of the lactose-intolerant Chinese whose diet did not include dairy. Until very recently, osteoporosis was not even a subject mentioned in medical texts.7
Can the modern-day problem of osteoporosis be solved by dairy? Studies show that Scandinavians and Americans, who consume the most dairy, have the highest rates of osteoporosis in the world.8 Perhaps there is something greater at work here.
Weston Price, a dentist who traveled the globe in the 1930-40s to investigate the dental conditions and dietary habits of major traditional cultures, found that groups living in traditional ways, untouched by Western food innovations, had perfectly formed jaw structures to accommodate their beautifully aligned/cavity-free teeth. Yet, only one of these societies, the Swiss in a remote mountain region, used dairy as a dietary mainstay. In contrast, the traditional cultures visited by Weston Price that were “modernized” and exposed to sugar, white bread, sweetened condensed milk, canned foods (canned foods lack “life force”), and tobacco quickly suffered deteriorating jaw structure, crowded teeth, and rampant tooth decay.9
Why did our farming ancestors, who drank less milk than we do, and the traditional Chinese, who drank no milk at all, escape chronic hip fractures? Might it be that osteoporosis could involve not only our need for calcium but also the “subtractors” inherent in our modern, sedentary lifestyle: the lack of sunshine and exercise; the use of tobacco, combined with a host of acid-forming foods such as sugar, refined flour, animal products, and alcohol.10 Using tobacco as a proxy for these, we find that Americans in 1900 consumed less dairy but also smoked far fewer cigarettes. Americans today smoke an average of 1700 cigarettes annually, some 30 times the number smoked 100 years ago.11 The growth of sugar, refined flour, sodas, refined oils, tobacco, and alcohol both nationally and around the globe is part of the “subtractor” lifestyle side of the osteoporosis equation. So, too, are urbanization, television, and a more sedentary lifestyle.
Some scientists claim, against the backdrop of the modern diet, that too much calcium can actually cause disease, because the body needs adequate levels of silica (found in whole grains and whole vegetables that are eaten less frequently today) to metabolize calcium into bone. Adequate levels of silica are needed to form the collagen matrix (the rubbery, structural part of bone) and to act as the carrier of calcium into bone.12 (See further discussion, below.)
Fear of osteoporosis drives many of us to purchase more dairy products than we might otherwise. But is this good thinking–especially when we consider that many people cannot tolerate dairy and that dairy farming comes with its own environmental price tag (October09 newsletter)? To address osteoporosis, we may want to expand our lens to consider other factors of modern life. Perhaps it is the Western diet and sedentary lifestyle rather than the lack of dairy per se, that better explains how the “osteoporosis net” has spread to so many cultures around the world.
I still love yogurt. Just thinking of its velvety-smooth texture makes my mouth water. But now, when I do eat it, I no longer feel that I “must” for the sake of my bones. Instead, I think of the excess/anabolic nutrients in milk that are meant to grow calves into cows, and I wonder if dairy might be too much of a good thing for me, particularly at my stage in life. Now, I enjoy yogurt and cheese, but more as an occasional indulgence rather than a daily necessity.
Is Dairy Right for You?
Whether dairy is appropriate is a personal decision, determined by several factors:
1. The personal profile, including:
a. Age/stage in the life cycle, since dairy may work well for some, but not for the same person at every age or stage of life;
b. Ethnic background and ability to tolerate lactose;13 and
c. General state of health. Dairy can suit both those who are young and growing, as well as adults who are thin and depleted or who suffer from dryness, since dairy builds fuilds/ “yin.” The build-up/growth protein and calcium nutrients found in milk can especially benefit some people belonging to both of these groups.
2. The dietary context in which dairy is consumed. Dairy is a rich, anabolic food. The nourishing qualities of fresh milk can enhance growth and human development in regions of the world where protein food sources are scarce. Most cultures that have to rely on dairy as a protein source also rely on vegetables and fruits as a dietary mainstay. These plant foods are cleansing and offer balance to the dairy component of the diet.
Of course, in the United States, where meat, poultry, eggs, and fish are plentiful, we hardly need dairy as a protein source. Moreover, against the backdrop of the Standard American Diet,14 the anabolic quality of milk can lead to excess/mucus build-up that creates a breeding ground for bacteria. In this setting, milk is just one more factor to tip the scales toward disease, both acute (colds, ear infections) and chronic (cysts, tumors, clogged arteries, diabetes, osteoporosis, reproductive issues).
The Standard American Diet (SAD) poses another problem for dairy because many SAD foods are stripped of the inherent vitamins and essential and trace minerals15 that are needed as cofactors to allow the body to absorb and utilize calcium. So, in the context of manufactured/processed foods, much of the calcium we consume through milk may be lost, either excreted through the kidneys (whose job it is dispose of excesses, including calcium) or it can be stored in organs or soft tissues or joints (osteoarthritis), since the body is programmed to store calcium for future needs.
Calcium absorption is also hampered by the American preference for skim and low-fat milk over whole milk. This can be counterproductive since fat is necessary for the absorption of all minerals, including calcium. The natural fat in whole milk is also required for the proper digestion and assimilation of its nutrients.
3. Whether quality sources of dairy are available. While milk was not generally a part of the diet of traditional cultures, what fresh, cultured milk was consumed back then shares little with the “modified, processed” supermarket milk that we buy today. Traditional cultures like the Swiss in the Loetschental Valley studied by Weston Price some 80 years ago consumed fresh, raw, cultured milk from cows grazing upon the green grass of rotating pasture lands.16 In contrast, the milk available to most Americans today comes from commercial dairy cows that are treated with antibiotics and growth hormones and fed grain raised with pesticides.17 Pesticides make foods more difficult to digest. Commercial milk is also harder to digest because it is pasteurized and homogenized. All these factors can lead to a variety of health issues (discussed later). Given that supermarket milk is a distant cousin of fresh, whole milk from pastured cows, it may be difficult to find quality milk that you can trust.
Bigger Issues Surrounding Dairy
Milk for Adults? Cows’ Milk for Humans?
Stating the obvious…breast milk is designed to grow infants into toddlers; and cow’s milk, to grow calves into cows. Whether humans are meant to consume milk at all once food-tearing and -grinding teeth appear is a long-debated question that I leave to your personal genetics and preferences. The more important question is whether cow’s milk–even of the highest quality that is fresh, fermented, from grass-fed cows–is even suitable in composition to contribute to general health and vitality.
Whole cow’s milk contains roughly the same amount of fat and carbohydrate as breast milk, but far more of the growth nutrients, protein and calcium: Cow’s milk has almost four times the calcium and three times the protein as breast milk.18 Extra protein and calcium, when not paired with fats, vitamins, and minerals for proper absorption, has to go somewhere, of course. If excreted, it can put an extra burden on the kidneys. Or, as mentioned above, since the body tries to horde calcium to be used later for a variety of its needs (neurological function, energy production, and muscle regulation, etc.), excess calcium without adequate cofactors can create calcification of soft tissues, arteries (atherosclerosis), and joints (osteoarthritis).
Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH), which is present in 80 to 90 percent of all commercial milk, adds an additional question for adults considering dairy. rBGH is an added growth stimulant on top of milk itself. It seems logical that a hormone that stimulates milk production in cows might affect the mammary and reproductive organs in people. David Servan-Schreiber suggests, rBGH “ may stimulate the production of insulin growth factor (IGF) and the growth of cancer cells in humans.”19
Casein, which is not soluble and therefore harder to digest and absorb than the whey proteins found in milk,20 is another health factor. It accounts for 85 percent of the total protein content of cow’s milk and is found in twice the concentration as human milk. Casein has been linked to allergies and autism, to cancer,21 and to a variety of digestive issues, including irritable bowel disease.
Should We Consider Commercial Milk as a Suitable Substitute for Fresh Cow’s Milk?
Fresh cow’s milk at the farm is a fragile food full of vitality. It is also full of live, healthy lactobacilli that aid in its digestion and assimilation. But to preserve it over the days and over the miles just to get it to our table without spoiling, we have to tinker with it. Might we wonder, with all the other food alternatives available to us in the United States, if we are trying too hard to find ways to bring milk to our city dining tables? What are the health implications of the denatured, modified supermarket milk, unknown to our farmer forebears, that we buy today?
Looking back 100 years, the majority of all milk (56 percent) consumed in the United States was produced and consumed on the farm. In 1909, Americans per capita consumed 34 gallons of fluid milk, 27 gallons in the form of whole milk with the balance essentially buttermilk, the byproduct left from churning milk and cream to make butter. Today, the typical American consumes 101 gallons of fluid milk22 (in all forms), almost three times more than our farming great-grandparents. And today, rather than the majority that was true a century ago, only 0.3 percent of all milk is produced and consumed on farms. Finally, instead of whole milk, most Americans purchase skim and low-fat milk and milk products.
How do we manipulate milk to get it to from the commercial dairy to our city/urban table?
• Pasteurization. Pasteurization, heating milk to 145-160 F degrees, aims to kill most viruses and bacteria in milk. This process is necessary to preserve milk long enough to get it bottled, shipped, and to our kitchen tables. But when we “sterilize” milk in this way, what happens to its vital life force energy? Or to the healthy bacteria that naturally reside in the milk to help with its digestion and assimilation? Many experts23 point to the difficulty the body experiences digesting pasteurized milk.
Ultra-pasteurized milk takes pasteurization one step further. Heated above the boiling point to kill “everything in sight,” ultra-pasteurized milk seems the epitome of a “dead, lifeless, plastic” food. Its shelf life of two to three months suggests that it has too little nutritive value or life force to attract and sustain the billions of bacteria in the environment that would normally feed on and sour it. So, how can we expect the digestive bacteria in our body to deal with it? Some experts believe that pasteurization today has less to do with “dangerous” viruses and bacteria inherent in milk, and more with the risks of contamination and disease associated with our modern, “industrialized” methods of milk production.
• Homogenization. Homogenization is a mechanical process that emulsifies the fat globules in milk. Milk is sent under high pressure through a tiny opening in order to break up milk fat into small particles. With smaller diameter and greater surface area, fat particles then suspend evenly in milk rather than rising to the surface as cream. Some scientists and doctors, including Kurt Oster MD, believe that homogenization allows the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) in milk fat to pass through the intestinal wall into the blood stream (rather than being excreted as it normally would). Once in the blood stream, XO scratches arteries, creating scar tissue, which is then patched and repaired by cholesterol (this is one of cholesterol’s functions), in turn leading to clogged arteries and heart disease.24
Whether this theory is sound or not, what we do know is that homogenization greatly increases the surface area on the fat globules, that the original fat globule membrane is lost, and that a new one is formed that incorporates a much greater portion of casein and whey proteins25 [and free radicals?]. Manipulating milk fat in this way is linked to milk allergies, with potential ties to other chronic diseases.
• De-fatting. Americans are increasing shifting to low-fat and skim milk. We now consume annually about 8 gallons of whole milk per capita, down from 45 gallons in 1945 and 25 gallons as recently as 1970.26 Remember that, for their proper assimilation, minerals like calcium need to be accompanied by healthy fats. And, that the natural fat in milk aids in its digestion. Taking the fat out of milk raises the relative protein and casein content beyond the respective three- and two- times multiples normally found in cow’s milk relative to human milk. This works to put an even greater burden on the kidneys.
Another strike against low-fat and skim milk is oxidized cholesterol. Oxidized cholesterol results from the spray drying of milk or egg yolks. To spray dry, these foods are forced through a very tiny hole at high temperature and pressure to make powdered milk and eggs. Then, to create 1% and 2% milk, these milks are enriched by adding milk powder back into skim milk.27 This also gives low-fat milk more body and texture. Scientific evidence suggests this is not a sound practice, since research links oxidized cholesterol to atherosclerosis.28 Some experts believe it is the oxidation of free radicals more than cholesterol that is responsible for the arterial buildup of plaque.29
Lessons from Systems Theory
“PurposefuI behavior is often counterproductive. In seeking immediate goals, men and women generate unending secondary effects in the natural system of which they are a part…” ((Roy Rappaport, Planet Medicine, qtd.in Whole Food Guide to Strong Bones, Colbin.))
Let’s push back from the biology/chemistry microscope for a moment and look at milk through the physics lens. Foods, the human body, and groups such as families, sports teams, and business organizations are systems. The whole behaves differently when one member is missing. The dynamics around a family dinner table or a family outing are different if one member is missing, or if a non-family friend or guest tags along. The atmosphere and behaviors are changed, often in unexpected ways.
The same is true of the body when a part is lost through accident or surgery. And, the same is true of foods. When we remove fat and manipulate milk, we may alter how it works in our body in ways we do not intend. So, people drink skim milk for the calcium, and lose much of its benefit. And, scientists altered one gene of a tomato, only to find that 19 others change, as well.
A whole foods diet, an active lifestyle, social connection, and fulfilling life work are some of the best protections against osteoporosis. A good strategy for dairy, if it agrees with you, is to enjoy it in moderation. But try to use it sparingly if your diet includes a variety of acid-forming foods such as meat, eggs, refined flour, sugar, and refined fats. If you do eat dairy, it is wise to eat it:
• Separately, especially from meat
• With a diet that includes plenty of cleansing vegetables and fruits
• Fermented (e.g., yogurt, etc.)
• Whole, in all its full-fat goodness
Meanwhile, if you are concerned about osteoporosis, I recommend highly Annemarie Colbin’s The Whole Food Guide to Strong Bones (2009). This book distills much wisdom and many common-sense strategies to maintain strong bones without the need for dairy.
Appendix: Preventing Osteoporosis Through Drugs? Supplements?
“All man-made drugs or supplements have unbalancing or adverse effects. They are a double-edged sword with both desired effects and adverse effects. Both are equal. Both count. We cannot have one without the other. When we rely on drugs for our health needs, the adverse effects must be taken into account, and expected, at all times”
….Annemarie Colbin, The Whole Food Guide to Strong Bones
The Internet is such a wealth of information. A scan of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) web site paints the startling picture of the growth and spread of osteoporosis and hip fracture around the globe. The projected economic burden for society, both from medical care and the lost of man-hours, is hard to imagine.
• Osteoporosis affects an estimated 75 million people worldwide;
• Between now and 2050, the worldwide incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase 310% for men and 240% for women.30
• The World Health organization predicts that by the year 2050 there will be 900 million people in Asia over the age of 65 and that the hip fracture rate, which was 30% in 1990, will rise to 50% by the year 2050. This translates to a hip fracture rate in Asia by 2050 of 3.2 million per year.31
The IOF commentary speaks of the need for calcium supplementation and bone-building drugs to attempt to deal with current and future osteoporosis and hip fracture problems. What about this targeted strategy? Modern medicine has defined osteoporosis as a “disease” to be measured by sophisticated bone density machines and treated by bone-building drugs. It is a big and growing business, but one viewing just fragments of the true issue.
Using the Internet, I explored the USDA data base to find per capita fluid milk consumption by country and I then cross-referenced this data with information from the International Osteoporosis Foundation. These are some of my findings…
• Between 1990 and 2000, the worldwide rate of hip fracture rose by almost 25% (IOF), yet fluid milk consumption for most countries remained essentially unchanged (slightly up or down) over this period.
• Finns drink the most milk per capita of any country in the world. The average Finn drinks twice what we do in America. Milk consumption in Finland increased a bit during the 1990s, yet the total number of hip fractures rose by 70% over this period.32 Perhaps an underlying reason is that since 1990 the Finns have cut in half their whole milk consumption, favoring skim milk, which has increased five-fold over this same period.33
• In China, the rate of hip fracture is actually higher for men than for women (we cannot blame female hormones this time!).34 China also leads the world, as its foremost grower/producer of tobacco. In China, studies suggest some 55% of men smoke, compared to only 5% of all women.35 In contrast, cigarette smoking rates in the United States are almost identical, at 28.5% for women compared to 28.4 % in men.36 The modern-day Chinese also prefer polished (drained of silica) to whole-grain brown rice.
The rampant expansion of global osteoporosis, the dramatic increase expected for men worldwide, the spread of osteoporosis to the Finns as the world’s most enthusiastic consumers of dairy, and the fact that osteoporosis in China is higher for men than women (contrary to other major countries), suggest that bone health is complex. Perhaps it is far too complex to rely on simple targeted strategies like calcium supplementation and bone-density drugs. Also, given the environmental implications of commercial dairy farming (see October09), it is apparent that dairy alone cannot answer the global osteoporosis problem—neither here in the United States nor around the globe. First, we must address the issues brought on by the spread of Western dietary and lifestyle habits to the far corners of the world.
Weston A. Price, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration
Annemarie Colbin, Food and Healing; The Whole Foods Guide to Strong Bones, Food and Healing
Paul Pitchford, Healiing With Whole Foods
Elson Haas, Staying Healthy with Nutrition
Sally Fallon, Nourishing Traditions
Mary Enig, Know Your Fats
Henry Lindlahr, Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics
Daverick Leggett, Recipes for Self-Healing
Michael Murray, The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods
Russell Blaylock, Health and Nutrition Secrets
Michio Kushi, Natural Healing through Macrobiotics
Margaret Wheatley, Leadership and the New Science
Recipes: Whole-Grain, Nut, and Seed “Milks” as an Alternative to Dairy
Silica is a trace mineral that helps maintain the health of bones, cartilage, tendons, blood vessels, skin, and hair. Silica is also thought to arrest the signs of aging, since it promotes tissue strength, elasticity, and firmness. It is even believed to penetrate tissues to expel stored toxins.37 Recent research also suggests that excessive intake of calcium, without adequate silica, can actually cause osteoporosis.38
Silica is present in the soil and is the most abundant mineral in the earth’s crust.39 It is found in the outside covering of whole grains such as wheat, oats, barley, millet, and rice. It is also present in beets, alfalfa, onions, dark, leafy green vegetables, cucumbers, avocados, and the herbs horsetail, comfrey, and nettles.
“Milks” made from whole grains, nuts, and seeds can be used as alternatives to dairy. They also provide good sources of silica and other cofactor nutrients to help build strong bones, teeth, hair, skin, blood vessels, and connective tissues.
The recipes that follow are simple and easy to do. You can find other recipes for making milks, but I choose these because they involve few ingredients and no special materials or equipment.
3 cups boiling, filtered water
1 cup rolled oats
2 T. sweet white or barley miso
Dissolve miso in a bit of the boiling water. Then, add all ingredients to a jar, stir, and cover with a lid. Refrigerate overnight or for about 12 hours. Then, blend until smooth in a blender or food processor. Always shake before using. Keeps for about a week.
Variations: For creamier texture, first grind oats in a blender or coffee grinder before proceeding. For a richer milk, add tahini or almond butter, to taste. For sweeter milk, add a few dates or other dried fruit, vanilla, cinnamon, nutmeg, etc.
Source: Modified from Delicious Wisdom.com
1 cup cooked barley
1 cup boiling water
8 cups water
Salt to taste
Place barley in a blender. Add boiling water and pulse, then blend for 1 minute. Add 8 cups of water and salt. Blend. Serve.
As an added source of silica in your cooking, this can be used in place of liquid in many soups.
Variations: Blend ¼ cup walnuts, ¼ cup raisins or prunes, 2T. rice syrup, and a bit of barley malt.
Source: Jackson Blackman
2cups short grain brown rice
4 cups filtered water
• Rinse rice in water, swishing and pouring off until water runs clear. Strain completely.
• Bring 4 cups water to a boil and soak the rice for two hours, covered on the counter top.
• Remove 1 cup of soaked rice from the water and add it to a blender with 2 ½ cups of cold water. Blend the rice until it is coarsely ground and mixed, not perfectly smooth. Pour the blended rice mixture into a pot and repeat the process until all the rice is used up.
• Bring the rice mixture to a boil and then reduce the heat to low and simmer it covered, for 20 minutes.
• Line a sieve with two layers of cheesecloth and place the sieve over a large bowl. Pour the rice mixture into the sieve, allowing the milk to drain into the bowl. Gather the cheesecloth and squeeze it to drain as much liquid as possible into the bowl.
Store in refrigerator. Keeps for about a week.
Source: Ellen Arian
1 cup almonds
Water, Divided: 1 cup, 1 cup, 6 cups
1 cup cooked brown rice
Salt to taste
1 T. barley malt
Vanilla extract, to taste (~1 T.)
Place almonds in a blender and blend to a powder. Add 1 cup water and blend for a minute. Add cooked rice and blend one minute. Add 1 cup water and blend a minute. Add salt and remaining 6 cups of water, barley malt, and vanilla. Blend, adjust seasonings and serve.
Source: Jackson Blackman
Easy Sesame Seed Milk
1 cup sesame seeds
2-3 pitted dates
Soak sesame seeds in water to cover. Place in a blender or food processor with water and dates. Blend. Strain. Sesame seeds are high in calcium.
Source: Tonya Zavasta
Copyright 2009, Pathways4Heath
- Annemarie Colbin is the founder of the 30-year -old Natural Gourmet Institute and author of The Book of Whole Meals, Food and Healing, The Natural Gourmet Cookbook, and The Whole Food Guide to Strong Bones. [↩]
- Should you favor the bacteria model of Bechamp rather than Pasteur, you know that dairy can contribute, as a “clogging,” “stagnating” factor, to the creation of “morbid terrain” in the body. This creates a ripe condition for the conversion of microzymes into harmful bacteria. There is much to support Bechamp’s microzyme theory, a concept that has never been disproved. The germ/bacteria theory of Pasteur is more popular, since it provides a concrete target for suppressive drug strategies. In contrast, Bechamp’s theory lends itself more toward personal self-motivated, longer-term strategies related to diet and lifestyle in the spirit of prevention. [↩]
- Signs of excess can include asthma, allergies, strep throat, tonsillitis, ear infections, pimples, acne, overweight…Colbin, Food and Healing, 152. [↩]
- Signs of excess can include asthma, allergies, strep throat, tonsillitis, ear infections, pimples, acne, overweight…Colbin, Food and Healing, 152. [↩]
- See also Appendix, page 8, “Preventing Osteoporosis…Through Drugs? Supplements?” [↩]
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). [↩]
- Colbin, The Whole Food Guide to Strong Bones. [↩]
- What Doctors Don’t Tell You, Vol. 5, No. 1, qtd. in Daverick Leggett, Recipes for Self-Healing. [↩]
- Weston A. Price, DDS, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. [↩]
- See The Whole Food Guide to Strong Bones, by Colbin, for a complete discussion. [↩]
- Cigarette Consumption in the United States, 1900-2007, www.infoplease.com. [↩]
- Earl Stalin, qtd.in Too Much Calcium Leads to Osteoporosis?, Well Being Journal, November/December 2009. [↩]
- Earl Stalin, qtd.in Too Much Calcium Leads to Osteoporosis?, Well Being Journal, November/December 2009. [↩]
- The Standard Amercan Diet is tilted toward acid-/mucus-forming foods like highly-concentrated sweets and refined flour products, as well as commercial/processed meats and cold cuts, and denatured, processed foods with chemicals and artificial additives. [↩]
- Vitamins A, B6, C, D3, K, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, folic acid, silicon, and essential fatty acids (See The Whole Food Guide to Strong Bones). [↩]
- Of the seven major intact traditional cultures studied by Weston Price in his ground-breaking study, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration (1939), only the Swiss used dairy. [↩]
- Monsanto developed recombinant bovine growth hormone(rBGH) in 1990 and won FDA approval in 1993. More than a quarter of U.S. dairy cattle are treated with rBGH, and Monsanto to date has successfully fought attempts to have rBGH milk labeled. It is estimated that since commercial dairies mix non-rBGH milk with rBGH milk, that 80 to 90 percent of commercial dairy products in the United States are contaminated…Michael Murray, The Healing Power of Foods, p 575. [↩]
- Derived from “Got Milk?”, Stephanie Clark, Ph.D, Washington State University. [↩]
- David Servan-Schreiber, MD, PhD, Anti-Cancer: A New Way of Life. [↩]
- Paul Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods, 287. [↩]
- Dr. T. Colin Campbell, in The China Study found that casein promoted cancer at every stage of development. [↩]
- USDA, www.usda.gov…Dairy/milkpcap [↩]
- Michio Kushi,Annemarie Colbin, Paul Pitchford, Sally Fallon, Russel Blaylock, Daverick Leggett, Michael Murray. [↩]
- Pitchford,287. [↩]
- Mary Enig, Ph.D., Milk Homogenization and Heart Disease. [↩]
- USDA; www.ers.usda.gov. [↩]
- Sally Fallon of the Weston A. Price Foundation. [↩]
- Zhen You Chen, PhD, Hong Kong University. [↩]
- www.full-health.com [↩]
- The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF). [↩]
- Cooper C, Campion G, Melton L.J., Hip Fractures in the Elderly: A Worldwide Projection, qtd. in Osteoporosis—A Worldwide Problem and the Implications in Asia, E M C Lau, MD. [↩]
- See USDA Fluid Milk Consumption Per Capital, Selected Countries. [↩]
- email@example.com. [↩]
- Though not on a per capita basis (Greece leads the world), China is the largest cigarette consuming country in the world. Cigarette consumption jumped from 38 packs per capita per year in 1981 to 71 packs in 1990….FAO, Social Development Department. [↩]
- Science Direct, Sing Lee, Wan-jun Guo, Prevalence and correlates of Active and Ever-Smokers in Metropolitan China. [↩]
- PubMed, www.ncib.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/109277777. [↩]
- Elson Haas, Staying Healthy with Nutrition, 185. [↩]
- Too Much Calcium Leads to Osteoporosis? Well Being Journal, November/December 2009. [↩]
- Haas, 184. [↩]