September/October 2011: Gift from the Sea…Sea Vegetables

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Throughout much of the year, I enjoy walking some of the same beaches and secluded coves as Anne Morrow Lindberg, author of Gift from the Sea (1955). In doing so, I am touched in many of the same but also different ways by my own connection with the sea. Salt water seems to hold a special magic no matter what our age or in what age we live. Beyond its obvious ability to provide cooling relief from summers sweltering heat as well as rhythmic music to soothe away the stresses of urban life, the ocean offers many a special healing balm for body, mind, and spirit.

Apart from its humbling power and majesty, for me its fascination and mystery reaches beyond its expansive beauty. When I walk the oceans beaches or bob about in its surf, I feel suspended in time, as if its mineral-rich waters beckon me into a private world where time and space have no meaning.

I have friends who share these feelingsthis magic. For it is at the ocean and its shores where we sense a kind of participation with the earliest forms of primordial life, still nourished here by its chilly mineral waters. It is also here that we sense a connection through the soothing salt water to our own beginnings, the saline environment of our mothers womb. And, another aspect of our affinity for and attunement to the ocean may come from the fact that the blood that feeds and nourishes our every cell is similar in its mineral composition, particularly its sodium/potassium content, to the water of the oceans and seas.

If the ocean seems to suspend time and space, it also serves to unite us in time and space: Through the vast expanse of shared waters, we are joined to distant continents, foreign peoples, and the mineral riches of far-off lands. The ocean is the worlds mineral melting pot and perhaps the largest recycling system anywhere on earth. Eons ago, mineral-rich plates from the ocean floor were heaved through pressure to form the continents that we know today. And, now, through the weathering of rocks, erosion, and water runoff, many minerals and trace minerals from around the globe are continuously returned to the oceans and seas. Here minerals feed the oceans unique plant and animal life, while they also bathe our skin in minerals when we swim.

At summers end when we may no longer venture to the shores, we can preserve a bit of the oceans benefits by consuming mineral-rich sea vegetables. Dried and packaged for a long shelf life, each has its own unique vitamin/mineral profile, woven in harmonious chords to support general health and vitality and offering natural healing balms for a variety of health conditions.

Sun and Salt Water as Warp and Woof for Sea Vegetable Life

When we think of plant life, we generally think of sun and soil and plants rooted in the earth that weave upward against gravity in search of the suns heat energy. Sun and earth are the warp and woof of our familiar plant life. We rarely step outside this mindset.
When we limit ourselves in this way, however, we miss the whole world of medicinal, life-nurturing plant life offered by the oceans and the seas. In this world, sun and mineral-rich water together work life into an array of healing ocean plants that thrive in the cold waters of the intertidal zones of our continents. In the words of Rebecca Wood, sea vegetables are one of the worlds most underutilized foods[and]also the worlds most abundant food.

Growing as they do, weightless, swaying in the currents, and bathed in waters that contain all the one hundred or more minerals and trace minerals in our blood, ocean vegetables have a very different energy (see Signatures of Foods, October 2010), character, and nutritional makeup compared to land-based plants that grow in often-depleted soil and against the force of gravity. Sea vegetables are flexible, yielding, detoxifying, and cleansingand chocked full of mineral nourishment. When used as modest additions to land-based foods, they enhance the flavor and nutrition of familiar garden fair.

In their unique way, ocean vegetables incorporate minerals into their own plant tissues from their surrounding water environment so that their rich mineral nutrition is easy for the body to And, while sea vegetables absorb minerals, they do not absorb toxic metals and pollutants as fish do. They simply do not grow in areas where pollution is Moreover, sea vegetables are actually able to transform many toxic metals in their environment into harmless salts that the body is able to excrete with other waste

Ocean VegetablesAn Untapped Resource for Health, Longevity and Healing

Ocean vegetables provide ten to twenty times the minerals of land-based plant foodsthe complete panoply of 56-64 essential minerals and trace minerals required by the body for its many important functionsall in chelated, colloidal forms that are easy for the body to utilize, and in the ratios found in our This is significant because while the body requires a host of minerals and trace minerals to support the vast and complex electrical and neurological functions that are the basis of life, the body is not able to make minerals to supply its needs. For minerals the body must rely on food and other outside sourcessomething that has become more challenging as decades of over-farming have depleted our soil and robbed land-based plant foods of much of their potential nutrition.

While high in protein and fiber and low in fat, seaweeds are a good source of vitamins A, B, C, and E. They are also loaded with minerals, particularly calcium (bones, teeth; heart and muscle regulation); iodine (thyroid function, metabolism, weight loss, and to prevent goiter), phosphorus (bones, teeth, cellular repair; heart; nervous system) , magnesium (bones, teeth; heart, arteries; energy production), sodium (fluid balance; muscle regulation) , iron (blood; stress; immunity), chromium (weight loss, blood sugar regulation), selenium (tissue elasticity), zinc (digestion and metabolism), potassium (high blood pressure and stroke),link and fluorine (immunity; strong bones and teeth).

Sea vegetables are also a rich source of alginic acid, a substance that binds toxins and removes heavy metals and radioactive isotopes from the digestive tract, as well as strontium 90 from the Their natural antibiotic properties can act against penicillin-resistant Ocean vegetables are also a good source of carrageenan, a stabilizer and emulsifier added to foods, which is used in traditional medicine for respiratory and digestive issues. Because sea vegetables, unlike grains and beans, contain all the essential amino acids, they are a good addition to grains and beans to build plant foods into complete-protein meals. Brown seaweeds like kelp, kombu, and wakame contain natural glutamic acid (its synthetic analog is MSG) that naturally enhances the flavor of foods, tenderizes proteins in beans, and improves their

Health Benefits. With sea vegetables rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients, the list of health benefits associated with them is as impressive as it is extensive. In general, sea vegetables are thought to increase longevity; foster glowing skin and thick, shiny hair; and, support the cardiovascular, endocrine, digestive, and nervous More specifically, sea vegetables can be used to treat goiter, kidney disease, ulcers, nausea, digestive disorders, obesity, high blood pressure, hypertension, high cholesterol, arteriolosclerosis, hypoglycemia, constipation, bronchitis, metal and radiation toxicity, edema, swollen lymph glands, chronic cough, as well as lumps and tumors and cancer (particularly breast cancer). Traditional Chinese medicine suggests that there is no swelling that is not relieved by Highly alkalizing due to their high mineral content, sea vegetables help to rebalance the blood from acid-forming foods that characterize the Standard American Diet (SAD). They also dissolve mucous accumulation resulting from the SAD diet centered upon meat, commercial dairy, sugars, refined carbohydrates and vegetable oils, and other rich/ fractured foods. And, as one might expect from their high mineral content, they help us feel centered and grounded.

Using Sea Vegetables. Because they are so very rich in minerals, I like to think of sea vegetables as a supplementary ingredient to add sparingly to foods for color, interest, flavor, and nutrition. Sea vegetables are good complements to add extra nutrition to grains, beans, soups, salads, egg dishes, and sandwiches. I always add kombu or kelp when I cook beans, and I add it to most soups that I make. The glutamic acid in kombu/kelp tenderizes beans, aids in their digestion, and enhances their flavor.

Sea vegetables are whole foods; their minerals synergistically complement each other;link and, the body is generally able to excrete excessive minerals should they be over-consumed. While sea vegetables offer many benefits, moderation is important, particularly due to the high iodine levels found in many of them, especially varieties of kelp. Some people with sensitive thyroids and mothers who are breast feeding and postmenopausal women, may react to excess Consumption of iodine at high levels can actually inhibit thyroid function. Iodine can occasionally cause allergic reactions, mostly in the form of skin rashes in some people, and may also worsen

To cook with sea vegetables, rinse them well before using, especially if you prefer to avoid extra salt. Increase your consumption gradually if you think your digestive system may need time to adapt, and keep in mind that soaking sea vegetables for longer times will make them easier to digest. Finall, use them sparingly; sea vegetables are best used as a condiment or a side dish. If you do not like to cook, try a kelp and/or dulse shaker at the table to boost the mineral nutrition of meals. If you do enjoy cooking, a good rule of thumb is to consume a total of about 2 cups of cooked sea vegetables per

Some Major Types of Sea Vegetableslink

Agar-Agar (Kanten)
Agar is a delightful way to introduce sea vegetables into your cooking, particularly for savory aspics and dessert gelatins and custards. Agar produces a firmer gel than commercial products and it is less inclined to breakdown. A gelatin made from red algaes, it has no taste, no calories, and no smell so it will not interfere withit actually enhancesthe natural taste of fruits and vegetables. It can be used as a thickening medium in cooking and desserts as a healthier alternative to animal-based gelatins.

Health Profile: High in iodine, calcium, iron, and phosphorus along with vitamins A, B-complex, C, D, and K. It reduces inflammation, aids in digestion and weight loss, is a mild laxative, and bonds with toxic and radioactive wastes to help expel them from the body.

Arame is soft, mild, and sweet in flavor so it adapts to Western tastes. It can be cooked alone, with vegetables or added to salads for color, minerals, and interest.

Health Profile: A rich source of iodine, calcium, and iron, as well as vitamins A and the B-complex. It can support thyroid function, soften cysts and tumors, lower blood pressure, strengthen bones and teeth, support hormonal function and may be helpful with feminine disorders and mouth issues. It also contributes to healthy, wrinkle-free skin and thick, lustrous hair.

Dulse is purple-red in color, tender and chewy, with an unusual spicy taste. It goes well with soups, oats and other cooked grains, salads, and vegetables; it also combines well with onions and can be used as a condiment. Rinse dulse well to remove extra salt and the salty flavor.

Health Profile: Of all the sea vegetables, it is the richest in iron, while it also provides iodine, manganese (for enzyme production), phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, E, and trace minerals. Despite its salty taste, it is relatively low in sodium. With its high iron content, dulse is an excellent blood tonic and is used to strengthen the kidneys and adrenals. It is used to treat herpes, seasickness, and sore teeth and gums.

Kombu, a member of the kelp family (kelp can be substituted for kombu), is easy to use as a complementary ingredient in cooking, much as one would use herbs and spices. Considered the most completely mineralized food,link it significantly boosts the nutritional quality of any dish to which it is added. Kombu enhances the flavor of foods because it is high in glutamic acid, the natural version of synthetic MSG. It adds sweetness, derived both from its glutamic acid and from fucose and mannitol, two simple sugars that do not raise blood sugar, which is a boon for The glutamic acid in kombu also softens foods so that they cook more quickly and are easier to digest. Kombu is itself softened when cooked alongside other protein-rich foods.

Health Profile: Kombu is high in natural sugars, as well as potassium, iodine, calcium, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and trace minerals. Kombu (a diuretic) particularly supports the kidneys, hormonal system, and the thyroid. It reduces cysts and tumors; subdues fungal and candida yeasts; treats coughs and asthma while relieving the lungs and throat; and aids in weight loss. Specifically, kombu is used to treat goiter, arthritis, high blood pressure, edema, prostate and ovarian issues, diabetes, and

Besides glutamic acid, kombu is also high in alginic acid, the binding medium that holds sea vegetables together and gives them flexibility to withstand strong ocean currents. Its binding ability and indigestible nature act in the intestine to bind toxins in the colon wall for their natural excretion. Kombu is used in Eastern cultures to prevent and cure

Due to its mild flavor and multiple usesespecially as the colorful wrap for sushi rolls, nori is the best known and most popular of the sea vegetables. Beyond sushi, nori can be toasted and then torn or crumpled to garnish grains, vegetables, and soup dishes. You do not have to have sushi rice prepared to make a nori rollanything moist will do. I mix brown rice or quinoa with humus or yogurt; spread it over a nori sheet; add a layer of shredded carrots or other vegetables/fermented vegetables; roll; eat; and enjoy! The combinations are endless; use your imagination with whatever you have on hand.

Health Profile: Nori has the highest protein content (almost 50%) and is the easiest to digest of the sea vegetables. Nori also breaks down fats, so it helps in the digestion of fried, fatty foods. Perhaps most significant, nori is extremely low in iodine. If you want to consume sea vegetables for their many benefits but worry about iodine excess, nori is a wonderful choice. Nori is a good source of calcium, iron, vitamin A, B-complex, C, and D. Like other sea vegetables, nori benefits the kidneys and thyroid, treats goiter, edema, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coughs, and

Wakame, the colorful counterpoint of miso soup, is a favorite in Japan, along with nori and kombu. Wakame is mild in flavor, and after soaking, it mixes well with cooling summer vegetables and citrus fruits. In cooking, it combines nicely with onions, other garden vegetables, and boiled or sauted greens. Alaria, another sea vegetable, can be substituted for wakame in many recipes. Like kombu, wakame softens beans and other fibrous foods, enhancing their digestibility and nutrition.

Health Profile: After hijiki, wakame is highest in calcium of the sea vegetables. It is also rich in iodine, iron, and vitamin A, B-complex, C, and trace minerals. Like kombu and other seaweeds, wakame contains alginic acid to bind and help the body expel toxic metals and radiation; it also dispels mucous and phlegm, while it is thought to dissolve masses and tumors.

Reading Resources:
Peter and Montse Bradford, Cooking with Sea Vegetables.
Shep Erhart and Leslie Cerier, Sea Vegetable Celebration.
Jill Gusman, Vegetables from the Sea: Everyday Cooking with Sea Vegetables
Elson Haas, Staying Healthy With Nutrition.
Paul Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods.
Rebecca Wood, The New Whole Foods Encyclopedia.

Recipes: Cooking with Sea Vegetables
Many natural foods cookbooks include recipes using sea vegetables. I have chosen here to use just two sources, Cooking with Sea Vegetables and Sea Vegetable Celebration as a brief introduction to using sea vegetables. Available in simple paperback, these books provide many more interesting and diverse recipes for further cooking adventures.


Couscous Apricot Kanten (serves 4-5)
1 cups cooked couscous
2 cups dried apricots (or other dried fruit)
6 cups filtered water
Pinch of sea salt
1 cup agar flakes

1. Spread the cooked couscous evenly in a rinsed shallow dish or mold.
2. Rinse the apricots under cold water to clean, then place in a pot with 5 cups of the water and a pinch of sea salt. Bring to a boil and simmer gently for 30 minutes.
3. Soak the agar flakes in the remaining cup of water for 10-15 minutes. Add to the apricots and simmer for a few minutes, stirring constantly, until the flakes have completely dissolved.
4. Pour the mix gently over the couscous and leave to cool until firm. Cut into desired shapes.
Variation: Substitute other dried fruits or fresh fruits (these may require a longer cooking time). Sprinkle top with roasted nuts if desired.
Source: Peter and Montse Bradford

Strawberry Kanten (serves 4-5)
pound fresh strawberries
Pinch of sea salt
1 cup water
3 cups apple juice
-3/4 cup agar flakes
4 T. barley malt, or to taste

1. Wash the strawberries carefully and cut in half. Place in a bowl, add a pinch of sea salt and leave for hour to bring out their sweetness.
2. In a pot, add the water, apple juice and agar flakes and allow to soak for 10-15 minutes. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat, add the barley malt (taste the mix for sweetness and adjust) and simmer for a few minutes, stirring constantly, until the flakes have completely dissolved.
3. Add the strawberries to the cooked liquid, then place this mixture in a rinsed shallow dish or mold. Allow to cool until firm. Cut into desired shapes and serve, garnished with a fresh berry.
Source: Peter and Montse Bradford

Apple Sesame Custard (serves 4-5)
6 cups organic apple juice
1 cup agar flakes
2 T. natural vanilla extract
3 T. finely grated lemon peel
5 T. tahini
Pinch of sea salt

1. Place the apple juice and agar flakes in a pot and allow to soak for 10-15 minutes. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat and simmer for a few minutes, stirring constantly until all the flakes have dissolved.
2. With a little hot liquid, mix together the vanilla extract, lemon peel, tahini, and sea salt into a creamy consistency. Add to the hot liquid.
3. Rinse a shallow dish or mold in water and then pour in the hot liquid and leave to cool and firm.
4. Place in a blender and puree until smooth. Serve chilled on its own or as a topping for desserts.
Source: Peter and Montse Bradford


Arame Saute (serves 2-3)
cup arame
Spring or filtered water
1 t. mirin
1 t. dark sesame oil
2-3 shallots, diced
2 cups button mushrooms, cleaned and thinly sliced
1 cup match-stick sized carrot pieces
2 or 3 stalks broccoli, florets and stems diced
2 T. sunflower seeds, lightly pan-toasted

1. Rinse the arame well and set aside. It will soften without soaking.
2. Place the arame in a small pan with enough water to cover halfway. Bring to a boil, cover, and cook over low heat for 15 minutes. Season lightly with soy sauce and mirin and cook until all the liquid is absorbed.
3. Heat the oil in a skillet over medium heat. Add the shallots and cook, stirring until translucent, about 5 minutes. Add the mushrooms and cook, stirring until wilted. Add the carrots and cook, stirring, for 1-2 minutes. Finally, stir in broccoli and season lightly with more soy sauce. Cover and cook over low heat until the broccoli is bright green and crisp-tender, about 4 minutes. Stir in the arame and sunflower seeds. Transfer to a bowl and serve warm.
Source: Shep Erhart and Leslie Cerier


Dulse Oatmeal Soup (serves 3-4)
Dulse goes especially well with oats and onions
5 cups spring or filtered water
medium onion sliced in half moons
1 cup rolled oats
cup dulse, soaked in cup water for 5 minutes and finely sliced
Pinch of sea salt
Parsley, scallions or watercress chopped fine to garnish

1. Bring the water to a boil, add the onions and simmer uncovered for 5 minutes.
2. Add the rolled oats, dulse, soaking water from the dulse and the sea salt. Bring to a boil, reduce the flame and simmer for 20-25 minutes.
3. Garnish with chopped parsley, scallions, watercress, or grated carrots.
Source: Peter and Montse Bradford

Avocado Dulse Dip (serves 2)
1 T. dulse flakes or granules
1 avocado, chopped
3 scallions, diced
1 T. lemon juice
1/8 t. cayenne

Blend all the ingredients and serve with crudits or toasted whole grain pita crisps.
Source: Shep Erhart and Leslie Cerier

Dulse Tahini Dressing (serves 4-6)
An excellent dressing for lettuce-based salads
cup spring or filtered water
2 T. tahini
1 T. umeboshi plum paste
cup finely sliced dulse, soaked in water for 10 minutes and drained
3 scallions, finely chopped

1. Warm the water, add the tahini, and stir until creamy.
2. Stir or blend in thoroughly the umeboshi paste.
3. Stir in the dulse and scallions and/or parsley or watercress.
Source: Montse Bradford

Dulse DLT (Dulse, Lettuce and Tomato Sandwich)
Small handful of dry dulse, rinsed and dried, or pan fried, or baked at 300 degrees 3-4 minutes until crisp
2 slices whole grain bread; Lettuce; Tomato; Mayonaise
Dulse can also be added to any sandwich for crunch, color, tang, and a mineral infusion.


Basic Sea Vegetable Stock (yield 6 cups)
4 to 5 cups spring or filtered water
4- to 5-inch strip kelp or kombu
1/3 cup dried shitake or other mushrooms
1 t. minced fresh ginger
1 T. miso
3 scallions, chopped, for garnish

1. Bring the water to a boil in a 2-quart soup pot.
2. Add the kelp, dried mushrooms, and simmer them for 1 hour.
3. Remove the sea vegetable and mushrooms, dice, and return them to the pot.
4. Add the ginger and simmer for 15 minutes.
5. Stir in the miso and garnish with scallions. Serve or use as stock.
Source: Shep Erhart and Leslie Cerier

Lentil Stew (serves 4-5)
Cooking beans and legumes reduces the cooking time, softens them, and makes them more digestible.
1 cup lentils
1 6-inch strip kombu
3 cups spring or filtered water
1 cup onions, chopped
cup carrots, chopped
cup celery, chopped
t. sea salt
Scallions, chopped to garnish
1. Sort and wash lentils
2. Place in a pot with the kombu on the bottom and add the water.
3. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat to low, cover and simmer for about one hour or until lentils are almost soft.
4. Add onions and cook uncovered for 5 minutes.
5. Add the carrots, celery and sea salt, cover and cook for a further 10-15 minutes. Check water to be sure it is sufficient, adding more if necessary.
6. Remove the lid, turn the heat up to medium and boil off the excess water.
Source: Peter and Montse Bradford.

Covered Casserole (4 servings)
8 cups of assorted bite-size chunks of 3-7 vegetableswinter squash; carrots; turnip; parsnip; onion; leeks; cabbage; sweet potato; fresh or dried mushrooms
3 or 4 cloves garlic, diced (optional)
One 5- or 6-inch piece of kelp or kombu
One 1- or 2-inch knob ginger, sliced (optional)
One cup filtered water
Scallions, parsley, or edible flowers for garnish

1. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees.
2. Place the cut vegetables and garlic in a large mixing bowl, and mix them together to evenly distribute the garlic.
3. Cut the kelp/kombu with scissors into 1-inch by 2-inch strips and put it at the bottom of the casserole dish.
4. Add the vegetables, ginger, and water.
5. Bake for 45 minutes to 1 hour until the vegetables are tender and sweet.
Source: Peter and Montse Bradford


Nori Rolls
2 cups cooked rice, hot
2 T. rice or umeboshi vinegar
t. kelp powder
4 sheets nori, toasted
cup grated cucumber
Dash soy sauce
1 t. sesame seeds, toasted

1. Mix filling and set aside.
2. Mix vinegar and kelp with rice.
3. Place a sheet of nori on a small bamboo mat or heavy cloth napkin.
4. Spread cup of rice over the sheet, leaving a 2-inch edge uncovered at the end of the sheet.
5. Arrange of the filling in a line across the middle on the rice. Roll the nori in the mat.
6. Place the roll with the seam down to seal.
7. Slice 1-inch thick.

Variations: Use any grain or cooked vegetable combination. Mix umeboshi plum pulp or paste or miso with the grain. Umeboshi plum and vinegar both help preserve the grain, making nori rolls containing either of these an excellent travel food.
Source: Paul Pitchford


Miso Soup (serves 2-3)
cup wakame
3 cups spring or filtered water
1 small onion, sliced into half moons
cup broccoli, cut into small florets
1 t. barley miso
Scallion, chopped to garnish

1. Wash the wakame quickly under cold water and soak in a very small amount of water for 3 minutes. Slice in pieces.
2. Bring the water to a boil, add the onions and simmer uncovered for 5-7 minutes.
3. Add the wakame with its soaking water and broccoli and simmer for a further 5 minutes.
4. Puree the miso with a little of the soup liquid in a mortar and pestle.
5. Add to the soup. Reduce the heat to very low and simmer for 2 more minutes.
6. Serve, garnishing each bowl of soup with the chopped spring onions.
Source: Montse Bradford

Split Pea Soup (serves 3-4)
1 cup split peas
6 cups spring or filtered water
cup wakame, soaked 3 minutes and sliced into small pieces
1 medium onion, diced
t. sea salt
Whole wheat bread, cut into small cubes and baked, to garnish

1. Wash the split peas and put in a heavy pot with the water and wakame
2. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat to low, cover, and simmer for 1 hour (check often, stirring, to ensure that the peas do not stick to the bottom.)
3. Add the diced onions and simmer uncovered for 5 minutes
4. Add the sea salt and simmer for a further 10-15 minutes
5. Serve garnished with the baked bread croutons. The soup can also be garnished with grated carrot of chopped scallions.
Source: Peter and Montse Bradford

Copyright 2011

  1. See Swaha Devi in Sea Vegetables Are making A Splash, Alternative Medicine Magazine, January 2001. Colloids retain their molecular identity in liquid suspension and are easily absorbed by the cells of the body. Sea vegetables convert metals which can be toxic into colloids with an inherent negative charge, which work synergistically to boost the actions of other foods and supplements. Chelated minerals are attached to amino acids and other substances to make them easier to assimilate. See Shep Erhart and Leslie Cerier, Sea Vegetable Celebration, 22. [link]
  2. Peter and Montse Bradford, Cooking with Sea Vegetables, 12 [link]
  3. Paul Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods, 581 [link]
  4. Rebecca Wood, The New Whole Foods Encyclopedia, 306 [link]
  5. Potassium combines synergistically with sodium, iodine, and calcium to combat hypertension and support the elasticity of arterial wallsDr Erick Powel, Ph.D., in Kelp, the Health Giver, 16-17. [link]
  6. Erhart and Cerier, 30 [link]
  7. Wood, 305 [link]
  8. Erhart and Cerier, 23 [link]
  9. Susun Weed, Seaweed Is an Everyday Miracle. [link]
  10. Pitchford, 581 [link]
  11. For numerous examples, see Erhart and Cerier [link]
  12. Erhart and Cerier, 23 [link]
  13. Elson Haas, Staying Healthy with Nutrition [link]
  14. Tim Aitken, L.Ac., Eight Branches Healing Arts [link]
  15. For more details, see Pitchford, Wood, Erhart and Cerier, Haas, and Bradford [link]
  16. Pitchford, 589 [link]
  17. Bradford, 60 [link]
  18. Pitchford, 589 [link]
  19. Bradford, 59 [link]
  20. Pitchford, 591 [link]